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Our design models were developed in response to two organizational paradigms (1) plan and operations and (2) resource access and use

Whole View


Planning and Operations

Since the 1950s, an organization’s ability to make and sell things grew much faster than its knowledge about what people need, leaving greater uncertainty about what to make. The Whole View is a response to this Innovation Gap. When organizations don’t know what to make, they can benefit from a structure to explore various options. 

 This conceptual model structures advanced frameworks and methods that can help teams integrate viewpoints of users, offerings, values, operations, and strategies around the purpose for making change.

It can be used to describe an organization or a project or prescribe changes.

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Resource Access and Use



Modern organizations have been increasing their wealth and impact through the overproduction of material goods at the expense of social inequity and environmental degradation. While beneficial to the organization in the short term, this way of accessing and using resources is creating severe negative and often irreversible impacts on people and the planet.


The Four-I is a response to this Impact Gap. 

With growing awareness of the finite resources on the planet and the inequitable wealth distribution of contemporary operations and business practices, many organizations have begun to explore more sustainable and equitable flows of resources in their production-consumption systems. The Four-I presents a resource-based approach with new frameworks and methods that help teams consider four ways that resources flow within the systems they are working in.

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